Estación RN50

Bienvenidos al sitio Web de la Estación RN50 del Sistema Internacional de Vigilancia (IMS) de la Organización del Tratado de Prohibición Completa de Ensayos Nucleares, situada en la Ciudad de Panamá. Específicamente, en el Campus Central de la Universidad de Panamá.

Bienvenidos al sitio Web de la Estación RN50 del Sistema Internacional de Vigilancia (IMS) de la Organización del Tratado de Prohibición Completa de Ensayos Nucleares, situada en la Ciudad de Panamá. Específicamente, en el Campus Central de la Universidad de Panamá.

Bienvenidos al sitio Web de la Estación RN50 del Sistema Internacional de Vigilancia (IMS) de la Organización del Tratado de Prohibición Completa de Ensayos Nucleares, situada en la Ciudad de Panamá. Específicamente, en el Campus Central de la Universidad de Panamá.

Bienvenidos al sitio Web de la Estación RN50 del Sistema Internacional de Vigilancia (IMS) de la Organización del Tratado de Prohibición Completa de Ensayos Nucleares, situada en la Ciudad de Panamá. Específicamente, en el Campus Central de la Universidad de Panamá.

Bienvenidos al sitio Web de la Estación RN50 del Sistema Internacional de Vigilancia (IMS) de la Organización del Tratado de Prohibición Completa de Ensayos Nucleares, situada en la Ciudad de Panamá. Específicamente, en el Campus Central de la Universidad de Panamá.

Bienvenidos al sitio Web de la Estación RN50 del Sistema Internacional de Vigilancia (IMS) de la Organización del Tratado de Prohibición Completa de Ensayos Nucleares, situada en la Ciudad de Panamá. Específicamente, en el Campus Central de la Universidad de Panamá.

Artículo 1

The RN50 station of the International Monitoring System (IMS) as a reference station to the airborne particles pollution in Panama City

 

 

Bernardo Fernández, Omayra Pérez, Miguel González Marcos, Juan Jaén, Billy Mojica 

University of Panamá

 

Keywords: airborne particles pollution, RN50, IMS, Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Superparamagnetism.

 

Abstract

The 3M filter with airborne particles from the Snow White at the RN50 Station of the IMS is weighed daily to know the amount of μg/m3 of the collected particles, as an indicator of airborne particles pollution in the covered area of Panama City. This data, which covers 6 years (2005-2010), indicates that the pollution is more severe during the dry season (without rain and winds) in correlation with the activities of the weekdays. In the rainy season (a lot of rain and little wind) there is less pollution without correlation with the activities of the weekdays. By Mössbauer Spectroscopy, we saw superparamagnetism indicating the presence of nanoparticles (the most hazardous to health) in the air during both the dry season and the rainy season, but with a larger percentage of particles of this size during the rainy season. The intense building construction in Panama City shows that it contributes to the pollution of the environment by the presence of elements such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, which were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy, ICP- OES. The Station RN50 of the IMS is then, in addition to its contribution as part of the monitoring network to detect nuclear explosions (IMS) and to monitor the background radiation near the Panama Canal locks, a reference station to the airborne particles pollution in Panama City.

 

Introduction

 

We show that the Station RN50 of the IMS is, in addition to its contribution as part of the monitoring network to detect nuclear explosions (IMS) and to monitor the background radiation near the Panama Canal Locks of Miraflores (Panama City) as it was detected on the Fukushima nuclear accident, is also a reference station for the program (Programa ambiental nacional, 2003). to the airborne particles pollution in Panama City Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a major threat to human health in cities of developing countries. Fine and ultra-fine particles (nano particles) penetrate deeply into the lungs and can remain there for a substantial time. For rational air quality management, the quantities and the sources of particle air pollution must be known.

 

Materials and Methods

 

A particulate sampler essentially consists of a vacuum pump and a filter, to collect a 24-h sample. 3M (Valmari and Moring 2000) filter with airborne particles from the Snow White (JL 900) at the RN50 Station of the IMS is weighed daily, in a semi analytical balance (Acculab), to know the amount of the collected particles, as a quantitative indicator of airborne particles pollution in the covered area of Panama City. The mean value of the daily volume collected is 23 000 cubic meters. The Samples covers 6 years (2005-2010) and four months of 2011. Specific samples (2005) from March representative of the dry season and November, representative of the rainy season were measured. The elementary analysis was made by Inductively Coupled Plasma–Optical Emission Spectrometry ICP- OES. The Mossbauer spectra were measured in a transmission spectrometer working in a constant acceleration mode with 57Co Rh as a source in both ambient temperature (295 K) and 80 K. The Mossbauer spectra were analyzed with the software “Recoil”.

 

Results and discussions

 

This data (fig. Nº 1) indicates that the pollution is more severe during the dry season (winds and without rain, months January, February, March and April) in correlation with the activities of the weekdays (fig. Nº 2, 2008 is a year representative). In the rainy season (a lot of rain and little wind, fig Nº 3) there is less pollution without correlation with the activities of the weekdays.

 

Fig. Nº 1. Airborne particle pollution over the year.

Fig. Nº 2.  Airborne particle pollution over the week on the dry season.

Fig.  Nº 3. Rainy Regime over the year.

 

By Mössbauer Spectroscopy (Mojica et al., 2009), we saw superparamagnetism indicating the presence of nanoparticles (the most hazardous to health) in the air during both, the dry season (Fig. Nº 4) and the rainy season (Fig. Nº 5), but with a larger percentage of particles of this size during the rainy season. 

Fig.  Nº 4a. Mössbauer Spectrum for the dry season at 295 K . 

Fig. Nº 4b.  Mössbauer Spectrum for the dry season at 80 K.

Fig.  Nº 5a. Mössbauer Spectrum for the rainy season at 295 K.

Fig. Nº 5b.  Mössbauer Spectrum for the rainy season at 80 K.

 

The current source of elements (Robert M. Parr et al., 1996) are: motor vehicles  Na, Al, Si, S, Cl, Fe, Zn, Br, Pb; smoke Cl, K, Ca; soil (cement) Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe; sea-spray Na, S, Cl, K, Ca and industry P, S, V, Cr, Cu, Pb.  In the figure Nº 6, we show the elements found in the analyzed samples and we compare the results with other cities in Europe, Asia and The United States.

Fig. Nº 6. Comparison of elements contents between Panama City and others cities over the world. 

 

The intense building construction in Panama City shows that it contributes to the pollution of the environment by the presence of elements such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn. Because Panama City is in the coast of the Pacific Ocean the sea-spray source is the most realistic explanation for part of Na and K elements in the samples. This is only the first step in monitoring airborne particulate pollution in Panama City.

 

Conclusion

 

Then, the Station RN50 of the IMS is, in addition to its contribution as part of the monitoring network to detect nuclear explosions (IMS) is also a reference station for rational air quality management program, in Panama City.

 

References

 

1- Valmari, Tuomas and Moring, Mikael. (2000). Testing of different types of flat filtering media for IMS radionuclide stations. Contract 02/1/20/025 Testing Services. STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority. Research and Environmental Surveillance, Airborne Radioactivity, Finland.
2- PROGRAMA AMBIENTAL NACIONAL. (2003). (Estudio exploratorio de la calidad del aire y ruido en los distritos de Panamá, San Miguelito y Colón y programa de capacitación. Contrato pan N° 02-2002. Informe de avance N°1. Société Francaise d´Ingenierie. ANAM.
3- Mojica, B.; Fernandez, B.; Perez, O.; Jaen, J. (2009) Investigacion sobre el material particulado ambiental en ciudad de Panama. Tecnociencia 11, Nº 1, 9-28.,
4- Robert M. Parr, Susan F. Stone and R. Zeisler. (1996). Environmental protection: Nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution monitoring and research IAEA BULLETIN, 2.

 

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